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Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)

Understanding, Recognising, and Addressing the Challenge

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a mental health condition that affects a person’s perception of their own appearance, often to the point where they believe they have a significant defect or flaw which might be minor or non-existent to others. This misperception can lead to severe emotional distress and can significantly impact day-to-day life.

Delving Deeper into Understanding BDD

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is not a simple case of occasional dissatisfaction with one’s looks, which is a common sentiment experienced by many at some point in their lives. Rather, BDD is rooted in a deeply entrenched and distorted perception of oneself. It’s akin to viewing oneself through a warped mirror, where certain perceived flaws or defects are exaggerated, often to the point of obsession.

At the heart of BDD lies profound emotional turmoil and distress concerning one’s appearance. Individuals suffering from this condition may find themselves locked in a cycle of negative self-assessment, where a significant part of their day is consumed by these perceptions. Their fixation can range from specific facial features, like the nose or eyes, to broader concerns such as skin complexion or overall body shape.

Characteristic behaviours of those with BDD include:

Mirror checking: Individuals often find themselves compulsively checking their reflection, not just in mirrors but in any reflective surface they encounter. This isn’t done out of vanity but stems from an anxious need to constantly assess and reassess the perceived defect.

Seeking reassurance: Frequently, those with BDD might ask close friends or family about their appearance, seeking validation that their perceived flaw isn’t as bad as they believe. However, no amount of reassurance seems to alleviate their concerns for long.

Concealment and camouflage: In an attempt to hide or divert attention away from their perceived imperfections, individuals may resort to various methods. This could range from using makeup or clothing to hide the area of concern to adopting specific postures or avoiding certain lighting conditions.

Avoidance behaviours: Due to the intense shame or embarrassment they feel about their perceived flaws, individuals with BDD often avoid social situations, public spaces, or any circumstance where they believe their ‘defect’ might be noticed.

Understanding BDD is not just about recognising the overt behaviours or patterns of thought that an individual may display. At its core, it’s about grasping the deep-seated emotional and psychological turmoil that ensues within those affected by this condition. The distress BDD causes isn’t fleeting or superficial; it burrows deep into an individual’s psyche, altering the very lens through which they view themselves and the world around them.

To label BDD merely as a period of reduced self-esteem or a momentary lapse in self-confidence is to vastly understate its complexity and gravity. Unlike typical moments of self-doubt that many of us experience, BDD is a relentless, chronic condition. It’s akin to an internal critic that never silences, persistently magnifying perceived flaws and magnifying them to the point of obsession.

The debilitating nature of BDD stretches far beyond an individual’s relationship with their reflection in the mirror. It can hinder social interactions, academic or career achievements, and even daily routines. Simple activities, such as meeting a friend for coffee or attending a family gathering, can become Herculean tasks fraught with anxiety and apprehension. The shadow of BDD looms large, often casting a pall over an individual’s aspirations, relationships, and overall quality of life. Recognising the profound impact of this disorder is crucial for empathetic understanding and providing effective support and intervention.

Recognising the Symptoms

People with BDD often:

– Engage in repetitive behaviours (e.g., checking in mirrors, seeking reassurance).

– Persistently compare their appearance to others.

– Believe they have a flaw in their appearance that makes them ugly.

– Avoid social situations or photographs.

– Have a history of seeking and undergoing unnecessary medical procedures.

– Experience significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning due to their concerns about appearance.

Treating BDD

Recognising and addressing BDD is essential, as it can lead to severe emotional distress, including depression and anxiety. Treatments often involve a combination of therapy and medication.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT):  

CBT is a type of talk therapy that helps individuals recognise and challenge their distorted beliefs about their appearance. Through CBT:

– Patients learn to identify negative thought patterns.

– They’re taught strategies to challenge these thoughts and replace them with more realistic and positive ones.

– Exposure and response prevention, a subset of CBT, involves facing feared situations and reducing avoidance and repetitive behaviours.


Certain antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), have been found effective for BDD. They can help reduce obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviours. ALWAYS SEEK MEDICAL ADVICE.

Support Groups:

Joining a support group, either in person or online, can be beneficial. Sharing feelings and experiences with others can provide emotional support and new coping techniques.

16 Self-Care Practices Essential for Managing Body Dysmorphic Disorder:

1. Limit Mirror Checking: Set boundaries on how often you look in the mirror. This can help reduce the compulsion to check and re-check perceived flaws.

2. Mindfulness and Meditation: Engaging in mindfulness exercises and meditation can help ground individuals in the present moment, making it easier to distance oneself from obsessive thoughts about appearance.

3. Maintain a Routine: A structured daily routine can help provide a sense of normalcy and reduce anxiety.

4. Seek Support: Join a BDD or mental health support group to share experiences and coping strategies with others who understand.

5. Educate Yourself: Understanding BDD can help you feel more in control. Knowledge can be empowering.

6. Avoid Triggers: Identify and limit exposure to triggers exacerbating your BDD symptoms, such as certain social media platforms or magazines focusing heavily on idealised beauty standards.

7. Journaling: Writing down your feelings can provide an outlet for your emotions and offer clarity on patterns of thought.

8. Physical Activity: Engaging in regular physical activity, whether it’s walking, yoga, or any other form of exercise, can help alleviate anxiety and boost mood.

9. Healthy Eating: A balanced diet can play a crucial role in mental health, providing the necessary nutrients for brain function and mood regulation.

10. Limit Alcohol and Caffeine: Both can exacerbate anxiety and other BDD symptoms.

11. Engage in Activities that Boost Self-worth: Take part in hobbies and activities where the focus isn’t on appearance but on skill, enjoyment, or helping others.

12. Practice Gratitude: Keeping a gratitude journal or simply taking a moment each day to acknowledge positive aspects of your life can help shift focus from perceived flaws.

13. Establish Boundaries: If certain individuals consistently make negative comments or are unsupportive, it’s okay to set boundaries or limit time with them.

14. Positive Affirmations: Regularly recite positive affirmations that focus on your worth and value beyond physical appearance.

15. Seek Professional Help: While self-care practices are beneficial, they are most effective when combined with professional therapies tailored for BDD, such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

16. Stay Connected: Keeping in touch with loved ones and friends can provide essential emotional support and help counter feelings of isolation.

Remember, self-care practices are personal, and what works best will vary from individual to individual. It’s essential to find what feels right for you and to be gentle with yourself throughout the process. If you or someone you know is struggling with BDD, seeking support from a mental health professional is a crucial step.

Navigating the Journey to Healing

In conclusion, BDD is a challenging disorder that significantly impacts individuals’ perceptions of themselves and their day-to-day lives. However, with understanding, support, and appropriate treatment, individuals can lead fulfilling lives and overcome the distress caused by BDD. If you or someone you know may be experiencing symptoms of BDD, seeking help from a mental health professional is a crucial first step.

Get help today with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, contact one of the below agencies:

Mind BDD Help


Body Dysmorphic Foundation

Anxiety UK


Your Mental Health Matters – The Bournemouth Observer.

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